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Figure 1. Hindu Churning of the Ocean

Below: Figure 2. Similarities between Hindu and Aztec depcitions of :Churning of Ocean:

Shan Hai Jing Unveiled and the Secrets of the Xia Dynasty.
Part 4: Mesoamerican Origin of Hindu Legend of "Churning of the Ocean"

Dr Ong Hean Tatt, Ph.D. 6th January 2020.

A true unique remarkable statistics based highly scholarly deciphering of Shan Hai Jing and its practical applicable meanings!
Millennia old secrets finally broken!

Common Symbolisms of "Churning of Ocean" among Hindu and Meso-American Cultures

In a previous article, it has been statistically proven that the events of the 3rd millennium text Shan Hai Jing show that the ancient Chinese Xia dynasty circa 2205 to 1700 BC, along with the legendary figures of Yellow Emperor Huang D and Ta Yu, was in the Americas. This finding also shed light on the debates on the diffusion of cultural motifs and symbols between the Americas and Asia, like the Hindu artefacts.

Analysts have pointed out to the diffusions of common legends and cultural symbolism between the Americas and India. A notable one, related to the finding that Shiva was Huitzilopochtli the Aztec God of War is the Hindu legend of the "Churning of the Ocean"

The devas and asuras cooperated to turn Mount Meru to churn the ocean (see Figure 1). The purpose was to produce the elixir of life. Mount Meru was on the verge of collapse when Vishnu caused a turtle to appear to support Mount Meru. Among the devas on one side were Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. Vishnu was also drawn as a fgure sitting on top of Mount Meru. In the legend, they produced the elixir of life, but the devas cheated the asuras of the elixir

This "Churning of the Ocean" is strikingly found among the Meso-American sculptures. The Figure 2 shows another depiction of the Hindu legend of the Churning of the Ocean which depicts Vishnu standing on the turtle with the asuras on one side and devas on the other side. This picture is strikingly similar to the Aztec depiction of Quetzalcoatl, the White Aztec king of gods, who also is on a turtle.

  • Quetzalcoatl, the White Aztec God.
    On either side of Hun Hunahpu are his hero twin sons, Hunahpu and Xbalanque, who as ball players succeed through various sacrificial rituals to pass through and defeat the deities of Xibalba, the underworld. This scene is also depicted on this birth of the Maize god on the Uaxactum Plate illustrated below: Anonymousfor Prajapati. Jan 4, 2020. Who is Quetzalcoatl?

Quetzalcoatl is flanked by the twin gods, Hunahpu and Xbalanque who are also called Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc. It has been shown in the previous article that Huitzilopochtli the Aztec God of War is the Hindu Shiva. That is, both the Hindus and the Aztec have the same legends of the "Churning of the Ocean".

  • I was really surprised, however, when I came across the work of independent researcher Carl de Borhegyi, who has pointed out in his online publication titled Soma in the Americas that the Churning of the Milky Ocean episode has been depicted in a number of Mesoamerican codices, murals and relief panels. For instance, a ball court relief panel from the archaeological site of El Tajin, in Veracruz Mexico, depicts a turtle supporting the central axis, whose circular top can be seen. The churning mechanism used is an intertwined serpent, pulled at both ends by a pair of sky deities. All the key symbolic elements of the churning episode are present in this relief panel. It indicates that only did the cultures of Mesoamerica use very similar turtle symbolisms as those found in Asia, but they even drew from the same mythological tales. Kautilya / May 13, 2019 . The Turtle Supporting Mount Meru in Asian and Mesoamerican Art.


Other Common Symbolisms of "Churning of Ocean"

The motif of the "Churning of the Ocean" is found in various forms among the ancient cultures (Figure 3 ):

  • An interesting variant of the turtle symbolism can be seen in Chinese funerary architecture. It is a carved stone turtle called bixi, which serves as a base for holding memorial tablets that extol the virtues of the deceased.
    Bixi turtles were generally placed at the beginning of the ornate spirit way that led to the tombs of Chinese emperors. They were also installed at the entrances of palaces, temples, and walled cities. Tortoise-mounted funerary stele can be found in many other Asian countries influenced by China such Mongolia, Japan, Vietnam and Korea. From a visual perspective, bixi turtles supporting memorial tablets on their back resemble the form of Vishnu as the cosmic turtle supporting the Mount Meru on his back.
    Kautilya / May 13, 2019 . The Turtle Supporting Mount Meru in Asian and Mesoamerican

Figure 3. Churning of Ocean Steles in various cultures
Left: Mexico City, Middle: Mayan City Uxmal Mexico and Right: China

Top. Hindu Pachisi
Bottom. American Patolli


Migratory Paths of Diffusion of Motifs

There are two explanations for such similarities in motifs and symbolism among the ancient cultures. One is that they were the results of common independent development. The other explanation is migration of cultural motifs. However, the similarities can be too much to be accounted through independent development. That is, these common motif of the "Churning of the Ocean" had to occurred through migration of motifs.

  • An example of a difficult-to-explain parallel is the "posthole murder motif" shared between Micronesia and Guatemala (and nowhere else). Stewart (1984) has discussed this "mythological episode" in which "a character ... miraculously escapes being crushed to death by a timber thrust into a house construction pit." Stewart found a minimum of twenty "specific and peculiar elements" that together form "parallel concatenations." He felt compelled by these to accept the idea that there had been "an historical relationship of some sort between the Guatemalan and Micronesian stories." But the classic case of this genre is the correspondence between a board game known anciently in India where it was called pachisi and the game patolli that had been played among the Aztecs and other peoples of Mesoamerica for centuries before the Spaniards reached the area. Both pachisi and patolli involved a flat playing surface marked in the form of a cross; on squares around the periphery of the cross markers were moved according to successive throws of dice or their equivalent. The winner of the game was he whose marker completed the circuit first (the twentieth-century commercial game "Parcheesi" was an adaptation of Indian pachisi). English anthropologist Edward Tylor (1878a; 1878b) pointed out numerous details in common in the setup and rules governing these games in Mexico and India. He concluded that since we do not know from historical sources how the similarities might have been transmitted from one area to the other, "all we can argue is that communication of some sort there was." He found it impossible to accept that human minds had twice invented the same set of arbitrary notions. The only satisfying explanation for parallels of such specificity as pachisi and patolli display is that the two occurrences were indeed historically related through some contact that has that has not so far been identified. Anthropologist Robert Lowie observed about this case that "the concatenation of details puts the parallels far outside any probability [of their having originated independently]" (1951, 13), although he did not propose any direct contact mechanism. A Complex of Ritual and Ideology Shared by Mesoamerica and the Ancient Near East by John L. Sorenson December 2009. Brigham Young University

The Hindu civilisation emerged only after 1700 BC in the Indus Valley from which it spread south into the rest of India. The fact is that the Meso-American cultures had been in the Americas since at least 2000 BC. Thus, the diffusion of motifs and symbols in this legend of "Churning of the Ocean" would logically occurred through a migration from the Americas into Asia.

Analysts have shown that the ancient Hindu culture venerated the maize which had to originate through a migration from the Americas. This migration from the Americas to Asia is also suggested for a number of other common things:

  • That staple of the Mesoamerican diet, the common kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), has been excavated from Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites in India dated as early as 1600 BCE. This American crop apparently also reached the Near East, as suggested by words for bean: in Arabic ful, in Hebrew pol, and in several Mayan tongues bol or buul. Furthermore, "the medieval Arabic term for kidney bean is lubiya," which was derived from Akkadian lubbu and Sumerian LU.B. Since that bean is a native of America, this means that voyagers had to have reached Asia from America at least in the second millennium BCE , and presumably the way to the western hemisphere was known then as well Complex of Ritual and Ideology Shared by Mesoamerica and the Ancient Near East by John L. Sorenson December 2009. Brigham Young University

The diffusion of cultural artefacts from the Americas to Asia is also supported by Shan Hai Jing. The 3rd millennium text Shan Hai Jing refers many times to maize (corn):

  • 1.1: Southern Mountains route's head (starts) [is] called Que (Magpie) Mountain. The head called Zhao Yo (Beckon Shaking) Mountain, [from] (high) up overlooking to Western Sea, [have] much cassia-laurel, much metal jade. Have grass here, it is much like leek and green flowers, its name called Zhu Yu (Wish Surplus), eat it not hungry. Have tree (plant) here, which is much like corn , and black texture, its flowers 4 illumination (colour), its name called Mi Gu (Bewildering Grain), wear (at belt) not bewildering. Have beasts here, which are much like Yu-Ape with white ears, lean-over (crouching) person walks, its name called Xing Xing [ape or weasel], eating it good for running. Li Lu (Beautiful Deer) Water goes out here, and westward flow pours into sea. Its middle (area) much Yu Pei (Bring-up Abundance), wear (at belt) no intestine-obstruction disease.

The 3rd millennium BC dating of Shan Hai Jing indicates that Shan Ha Jing in its reference to corn is referring to ancient Americas, which is the homeland of maize or corn.

Archaeology digs reveal artefacts of the Chinese civilistaion only from 1400 BC onwards. Hence, the events of the 3rd millennium BC Shan Hai Jing were all outside ancient China.

Dr Ong Hean Tatt. about 300p. richly illustrated
Statistical comparative analysis of what King Wen I Ching is about.

New analytical evidence indicates that the Shan division of Shan Hai Jing has a very significant statistical correlation of 1 in 67 millions with King Wen I Ching


Shan Hai Jing Refers to "Churning of Ocean"

Shan Hai Jing also refers to the Hindu legend of "Churning of the Oceans":

The ancient Chinese legend tells of how the monster Gong Gong attacked the "Revolving Mountain" [the turning of Mount Meru to churn the ocean] and upset the heavens, so that a flood occurred. Ta Yu killed Gong Gong and the Goddess Nuwa repaired the damage. This legend is narrated as follows in Shan Hai Jing:

The Shan Hai Jing called the "Revolving Mountain" the "9 mountains". The result was a great flood, leading to Ta Yu attacking and killing Gong Gong.



The event of "Churning of the Ocean" occurred in the Americas! Thus the cultural motifs, like the maize and god or stele on top of a tortoise, spread from the Americas into Asia.

The .Shan Hai Jing's Yellow Emperor Huang Di, Ta Yu, Gong Gong were all the time in the Americas, along with Chi You and his twin ministers Lord of the Wind and the Master of Rains. Lord of the Wind and the Master of Rains were Huitzilopochtli Tlaloc, the former being shown to be the Hindu god Shiva in the previous article. Likewise, Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma were in the Americas!

In identifying the mode of migration, it has to be borne in mind that the Indus Valley civilisation emerged only about 1700 BC. But the Mayan Aztec civilisations have roots back to at least 2000 BC. While diffusion of the images is definitely the answer, it may not be from India to the Americas but the other way round.

Part 5: Enigma of "Makara" in Mesoamerican-Hindu-Chinese Legends

Related articles:

Part 1: Statistical Evidence Shan Hai Jing is about the Americas
Part 2: Shan Hai Jing's Testimony about Location of Xia Dynasty
Part 3: Shiva was Huit-zilo-poch-tli the Aztec God of War
Part 4: Mesoamerican Origin of Hindu Legend of "Churning of the Ocean"
Part 5: Enigma of "Makara" in Mesoamerican-Hindu-Chinese Legends

  • Ultimate Secrets of Feng Shui of Shan Hai Jing Dr Ong Hean-Tatt, Ph.D. 1st September 2015.

  • Introductory article about breakthrough into King Wen I Ching: see

  • Shan Hai Jing is a highly scientific text!


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